Eat, Eat with, Eating - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Eat, Eat with, Eating

[ A-1,Verb,G2068, esthio ]
signifies to eat" (as distinct from pino, "to drink"); it is a lengthened form from edo (Lat., edo; cp. Eng., "edible"); in Hebrews 10:27, metaphorically, "devour;" it is said of the ordinary use of food and drink, 1 Corinthians 9:7; 1 Corinthians 11:22; of partaking of food at table, e.g., Mark 2:16; of reveling, Matthew 24:49; Luke 12:45. Cp. the strengthened, form katesthio, and the verb sunesthio, below. See DEVOUR.

[ A-2,Verb,G5315, phago ]
"to eat, devour, consume," is obsolete in the present and other tenses, but supplies certain tenses which are wanting in No. 1, above. In Luke 8:55 the AV has "(to give her) meat," the RV "(that something be given her) to eat." The idea that this verb combines both "eating" and "drinking," while No. 1 differentiates the one from the other, is not borne out in the NT. The word is very frequent in the Gospels and is used eleven times in 1 Cor. See also No. 3. See MEAT.

[ A-3,Verb,G5176, trogo ]
primarily, "to gnaw, to chew," stresses the slow process; it is used metaphorically of the habit of spiritually feeding upon Christ, John 6:54, John 6:56-John 6:58 (the aorists here do not indicate a definite act, but view a series of acts seen in perspective); of the constant custom of "eating" in certain company, John 13:18; of a practice unduly engrossing the world, Matthew 24:38.

In John 6, the change in the Lord's use from the verb esthio (phago) to the stronger verb trogo, is noticeable. The more persistent the unbelief of His hearers, the more difficult His language and statements became. In John 6:49-John 6:53 the verb phago is used; in John 6:54, John 6:58, trogo (in John 6:58 it is put into immediate contrast with phago). The use of trogo in Matthew 24:38; John 13:18 is a witness against pressing into the meaning of the word the sense of munching or gnawing; it had largely lost this sense in its common usage.

[ A-4,Verb,G1089, geuo ]
primarily, "to cause to taste, to give one a taste of," is used in the Middle Voice and denotes
(a) "to taste," its usual meaning;
(b) "to take food, to eat," Acts 10:10; Acts 20:11; Acts 23:14; the meaning to taste must not be pressed in these passages, the verb having acquired the more general meaning. As to whether Acts 20:11 refers to the Lord's Supper or to an ordinary meal, the addition of the words "and eaten" is perhaps a sufficient indication that the latter is referred to here, whereas Acts 20:7, where the single phrase "to break bread" is used, refers to the Lord's Supper. A parallel instance is found in Acts 2:43, Acts 2:46. In the former verse the phrase "the breaking of bread," unaccompanied by any word about taking food, clearly stands for the Lord's Supper; whereas in Acts 2:46 the phrase "breaking bread at home" is immediately explained by "they did take their food," indicating their ordinary meals. See TASTE.

[ A-5,Verb,G977, bibrosko ]
"to eat," is derived from a root, bor---, "to devour" (likewise seen in the noun broma, "food, meat;" cp. Eng., "carnivorous," "voracious," from Lat. vorax). This verb is found in John 6:13. The difference between this and phago, No. 2, above, may be seen perhaps in the fact that whereas in the Lord's question to Philip in John 6:5, phago intimates nothing about a full supply, the verb bibrosko, in John 6:13, indicates that the people had been provided with a big meal, of which they had partaken eagerly.

[ A-6,Verb,G2719, kataphago ]
"to satiate, to satisfy," as with food, is used in the Middle Voice in Acts 27:38, "had eaten enough;" in 1 Corinthians 4:8, "ye are filled." See FILL.

[ A-7,Verb,G2880, korennumi ]
"to satiate, to satisfy," as with food, is used in the Middle Voice in Acts 27:38, "had eaten enough;" in 1 Corinthians 4:8, "ye are filled." See FILL.

[ A-8,Verb,G4906, sunesthio ]
"to eat with" (sun, "with," and No. 1), is found in Luke 15:2; Acts 10:41; Acts 11:3; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Galatians 2:12.

[ A-9,Verb,3542 2192,nomen echo ] is a phrase consisting of the noun nome, denoting
(a) "pasturage,"
(b) "growth, increase," and echo, "to have." In John 10:9 the phrase signifies "to find pasture"
(a). In 2 Timothy 2:17, with the meaning
(b), the phrase is, lit., "will have growth," translated "will eat," i.e., "will spread like a gangrene." It is used in Greek writings, other than the NT, of the spread of a fire, and of ulcers. See PASTURE.

Note: The verb metalambano, "to take a part or share of anything with others, to partake of, share," is translated "did eat," in Acts 2:46, corrected in the RV to "did take;" a still more suitable rendering would be "shared," the sharing of food being suggested; cp. metadidomi, "to share," e.g., Luke 3:11.

[ B-1,Noun,G1035, brosis ]
akin to A, No. 5, denotes
(a) "the act of eating," e.g., Romans 14:17; said of rust, Matthew 6:19-Matthew 6:20; or, more usually
(b) "that which is eaten, food" (like broma, "food"), "meat," John 4:32; John 6:27, John 6:55; Colossians 2:16; Hebrews 12:16 ("morsel of meat"); "food," 2 Corinthians 9:10; "eating," 1 Corinthians 8:4. See FOOD, MEAT, RUST.

[ B-2,Noun,G4371, prosphagion ]
primarily "a dainty or relish" (especially cooked fish), to be eaten with bread (pros, "to," and A, No. 2), then, "fish" in general, is used in John 21:5, "Have ye aught to eat?" (AV, "have ye any meat?"). Moulton remarks that the evidences of the papyri are to the effect that prosphagion, "is not so broad a word as 'something to eat.' The Apostles had left even loaves behind them once, Mark 8:14; they might well have left the 'relish' on this occasion. It would normally be fish; cp. Mark 6:38" (Gram. of NT Greek, Vol. 1, p. 170).

[ C-1,Adjective,G1034, brosimos ]
akin to A, No. 5, and B., signifying "eatable," is found in Luke 24:41, RV, appropriately, "to eat," for the AV, "meat." In the Sept., Leviticus 19:23; Nehemiah 9:25; Ezekiel 47:12.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words