True, Truly, Truth - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

True, Truly, Truth

[ A-1,Adjective,G227, alethes ]
primarily, unconcealed, manifest" (a, negative, letho, "to forget," = lanthano, "to escape notice"), hence, actual, "true to fact," is used
(a) of persons, "truthful," Matthew 22:16; Mark 12:14; John 3:33; John 7:18; John 8:26; Romans 3:4; 2 Corinthians 6:8;
(b) of things, "true," conforming to reality, John 4:18, "truly," lit., "true;" John 5:31-John 5:32; in the best texts, John 6:55 (twice), "indeed;" John 8:13-John 8:14 (John 8:16 in some texts: See No. 2), John 8:17; John 10:41; John 19:35; John 21:24; Acts 12:9; Philippians 4:8; Titus 1:13; 1 Peter 5:12; 2 Peter 2:22; 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:27; 3 John 1:12.

[ A-2,Adjective,G228, alethinos ]
akin to No. 1, denotes "true" in the sense of "real, ideal, genuine;" it is used
(a) of God, John 7:28 (cp. No. 1 in John 7:18, above); John 17:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; Revelation 6:10; these declare that God fulfills the meaning of His Name; He is "very God," in distinction from all other gods, false gods (alethes, See John 3:33 in No. 1, signifies that He is veracious, "true" to His utterances, He cannot lie);
(b) of Christ, John 1:9; John 6:32; John 15:1; 1 John 2:8; 1 John 5:20 (thrice); Revelation 3:7, Revelation 3:14; Revelation 19:11; His judgment, John 8:16 (in the best texts, instead of No. 1);
(c) God's words, John 4:37; Revelation 19:9; Revelation 21:5; Revelation 22:6; the last three are equivalent to No. 1;
(d) His ways, Revelation 15:3;
(e) His judgments, Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2;
(f) His riches, Luke 16:11;
(g) His worshipers, John 4:23;
(h) their hearts, Hebrews 10:22;
(i) the witness of the Apostle John, John 19:35;
(j) the spiritual, antitypical tabernacle, Hebrews 8:2; Hebrews 9:24, not that the wilderness tabernacle was false, but that it was a weak and earthly copy of the heavenly.

Note: "Alethinos is related to alethes as form to contents or substances; alethes denotes the reality of the thing, alethinos defines the relation of the conception to the thing to which it corresponds = genuine" (Cremer).

[ A-3,Adjective,G1103, gnesios ]
primarily "lawfully begotten" (akin to ginomai, "to become"), hence, "true, genuine, sincere," is used in the Apostle's exhortation to his "true yoke-fellow" in Philippians 4:3. See OWN, SINCERITY.

Note: In the AV of 2 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Timothy 3:1, pistos, "faithful" (RV), is translated "true."

[ B-1,Verb,G226, aletheuo ]
signifies "to deal faithfully or truly with anyone" (cp. Genesis 42:16, Sept., "whether ye deal truly or no"), Ephesians 4:15, "speaking the truth;" Galatians 3:16, "I tell (you) the truth," where probably the Apostle is referring to the contents of his epistle.

[ C-1,Noun,G225, aletheia ]
"truth," is used
(a) objectively, signifying "the reality lying at the basis of an appearance; the manifested, veritable essence of a matter" (Cremer), e.g., Romans 9:1; 2 Corinthians 11:10; especially of Christian doctrine, e.g., Galatians 2:5, where "the truth of the Gospel" denotes the "true" teaching of the Gospel, in contrast to perversions of it; Romans 1:25, where "the truth of God" may be "the truth concerning God" or "God whose existence is a verity;" but in Romans 15:8 "the truth of God" is indicative of His faithfulness in the fulfillment of His promises as exhibited in Christ; the word has an absolute force in John 14:6; John 17:17; John 18:37-John 18:38; in Ephesians 4:21, where the RV, "even as truth is in Jesus," gives the correct rendering, the meaning is not merely ethical "truth," but "truth" in all its fullness and scope, as embodied in Him; He was the perfect expression of the truth; this is virtually equivalent to His statement in John 14:6;
(b) subjectively, "truthfulness," "truth," not merely verbal, but sincerity and integrity of character, John 8:44; 3 John 1:3, RV;
(c) in phrases, e.g., "in truth" (epi, "on the basis of"), Mark 12:14; Luke 20:21; with en, "in," 2 Corinthians 6:7; Colossians 1:6; 1 Timothy 2:7, RV (AV, "in ... verity"); 1 John 3:18; 2 John 1:1, 2 John 1:3-4.

Note: In Matthew 15:27, AV, nai, "yea" (RV), is translated "truth."

[ D-1,Adverb,G230, alethos ]
"truly, surely," is rendered "of a truth" in Matthew 14:33; Matthew 26:73; Mark 14:70, R.V, (AV, "surely"); Luke 9:27; Luke 12:44; Luke 21:3; John 6:14; John 7:40; John 17:8, RV, "of a truth" (AV, "surely"); Acts 12:11, RV (AV, "of a surety"); "in truth," 1 Thessalonians 2:13; "truly," Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39. See INDEED, No. 3.

[ D-2,Adverb,G1104, gnesios ]
"sincerely, honorably" (akin to A, No. 3), is rendered "truly" (marg., "genuinely") in Philippians 2:20 (AV, "naturally").


(1) The particles ara, men, and de are sometimes rendered "truly" in the AV, but are differently rendered in the RV.

(2) In 1 Corinthians 14:25, AV, ontos (RV, "indeed") is rendered "of a truth." See CERTAIN, C, No. 1, INDEED, No. 4.

(3) In John 20:30, AV, the particle oun, therefore (RV), is rendered "truly."

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words